The importance of harmony between Shia and Sunny is rising throughout the Islamic world. By the grace of Allah Almighty this desire of unity is in the heart of every Muslim. It is the need of hour that we should look in to the practical probabilities that could lead toward conformity among the nation umma seriously. We should know the hurdles which can block the path toward harmony and need to know how these hurdles can be removed.
In our opinion, the most important point of view in this regard is to understand everlasting and universal teaching of Islam and acknowledge the priorities set by Islam. If the Quran offer the formula for amity and alliance with the followers of revealed religion having a book (Ahl-e- Kitab), then for the believer of Islam, the act of harmony could be more easier way. And for such kind of harmony, strong base is available in Islam. Before searching different probabilities of harmony among the Muslim umma, we should analyze the appointment of Prophet and purpose of Sharia in depth and by knowing this, the way toward Muslim unity would be easy to travel. To understand the issues of Shia and Sunny, we categories believes and commandments for our own convenience.In this regard, we already know that both schools of thoughts agree over the moral teaching of Islam. And in belief, from the public point of view, the only major disagreement is over caliphate.
We should look into detail how the matter of caliphate was handled after the death of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and what argument both school of thoughts have over this issue and what is weightage of arguments of each side. Regardless of this we should accept the reality that these issues have become only part of the history and it is not possible for us to change the past history individually or even collectively with consensus. And one more thing, that today Shia and Sunny had no role in the creation of those issues. Now if a person afterreading the events of past history make an opinion and other person develop another idea from the same fact, for both, mutual respect and respect of freedom of opinion of other is only way to avoid conflict. For this both side should be at liberty to know opinion of each other and hold such opinion independently. By this way we can move toward Muslim unity practically.
There will be no use of forceful, aggressive, violent acts and jugglery of verdict and getting sign on agreement and presenting it to the followers according to their own interpretation and getting the certificate of success. It is very important in this regard that the personalities of the Islamic histories which are near and dear to any school of thoughts, their humiliation cannot be allowed and this act of disgrace should be avoided openly and even in gesture and gesticulation.
Now we come to commandments, in Islam two knowledge areas about commandments are prevailing (regardless of point of view of Ahl-e-Hadies ), one is Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Asool–e-Fiq) and the other isIslamic Jurisprudence (fiq). Those who are accept theory of Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence to deduce of commandment, also agree to the need of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation (Ijtehad).
If both school of thoughts acknowledge that door of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation (Ijeahad) is open, then we can easily present some basic suggestion in of front of them;
1Even over the principle of Islamic Jurisprudence, the purpose, limitations and policy of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation (Ijtehad) can be discussed in a new way
2With reference to Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence , the council comprising of experts and Islamic Jurisprudence investigators (Mujtahadeen) of different school of thoughts can ponder over the different probabilities of the Muslim unity after listening the opinion of each side. We expect that by doing so number of misunderstandings would be removed and new form and structure of Principle of Islamic Jurisprudence can be established. In this reference, it is important to keep in mind that Principle of Islamic Jurisprudence is knowledge also gained as a result of human efforts and the process of advancement and development of this continued in every era of history. Therefore it is no harm in reviewing the opinion of Islamic Jurisprudent in a new way.
3Both, Shia and Sunny declare Quran and Sunnat the basic fountain of their Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation(Ijtehad). But to extract Sunnat, their definition of Sunnat and sources of Sunnat are different. Even then a big collection of traditions related to commandments help to reach to same result in sources of both sides. Because of this most of Islamic verdicts have similarity in commandments for people. More homophony is present in deduction ofaffaires (Muamelat) and therefore it is purposed that new basis should be searched on which both Sunny Sources of Sunnat as well as Shia sources of Sunnat become the combine asset for the whole world of Islam and for deduction of commandments we can call it a fountain head.
4Apart from Quran and Sunnat, other Principles of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation need to be discussed in detail and need all to be reviewed with open mind. What is role of human dignity, Muslim unity, human nature and human development in the process of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation (Ijtehad) and where and to what extent these should be considered. Further, what is role of space and time in the process of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation (Ijtehad) and in which capacity it should be analyzed.
5What kind of scientific, human and political theories along with societal formation, international organization and laws affect the process of Islamic Jurisprudential Investigation (Ijtehad). And to what extend and on what basis effect of these should be accepted or rejected. This question also needs to be answered.
6In the opinion of number of the Islamic philosophers, instead of individual Islamic Jurisprudential investigation, they prefer to consultative Islamic Jurisprudential investigation(Shurai Ijtehad). There is also need to discuss policies and procedures of Islamic Jurisprudential investigation. There is further need to review that would be conditions of getting benefits of other scholars in specific fields apart from the experts of Quran And Sunnat.
7There is also need to review the opinion of those philosophers which believe that if, there is no need of following an Islamic Jurisprudent, having blind faith , and human being is free to accept or reject any belief with self learning and research, then it makes clear that religion gives basic importance to human intellect. When it is true, then to understand the commandments of Quran & Sunnat and to know the exact meaning of it, and in the light of all these , status of human intellect also need to be reviewed.
8By study ofhistory in depth,some of the researchers have pointed out that numerous commandments adopted by Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) were in accordance with the prevailing traditional laws of that time because the Prophet (PBUH) considered it close to education and purpose of Islam in that specific scenario. Some of the Philosophers are in the opinion that by understanding this policy of Prophet (PBUH) and reviewing its reasons, can open new way in deduction of orders. Review of this opinion in the context of new discussion and formation of Islamic Jurisprudence seem to be useful.
In our opinion as a result of ponder into these aspects can develop a new practical situation in Islam which can pave the way of real and strong Muslim unity. The development with regard to above issue is just wish at the moment and not more than a dream. But we understand that advancement without a wish is not possible and those who don’t dream how can they talk of elucidation.